Literature Highlights

Each week, we provide COVID-19 research article summaries and the main highlights in an infographic. Please come back weekly for more updated pandemic infographic highlights covering diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and more.

  • Antibody evasion properties of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages

  • Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes >30 Days After SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Persons Aged <18 Years — United States, March 1, 2020–June 28, 2021

  • Frequency, Characteristics and Complications of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Infants

  • Long-Term Complications of COVID-19 Infection in Adolescents and Children

  • Updated Guidance on Use and Prioritization of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Adolescents

  • Reduced sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta to antibody neutralization

  • Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults with mild COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

  • Evaluation of seropositivity following BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 in patients undergoing treatment for cancer

  • Subcutaneous REGEN-COV antibody combination to prevent COVID-19

  • Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant

  • Neutralizing capacity against Delta (B.1.617.2) and other variants of concern following Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination in health care workers, Israel

  • Prevention and attenuation of COVID-19 with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines

  • Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomized, controlled, open-label, platfom trial

  • Tackling COVID-19 with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies

  • Myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination

  • Therapeutic versus prophylactic anticoagulation for patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer concentration (ACTION): an open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

  • 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: A cohort study

  • Interim Results of a Phase 1–2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine

  • ‘Long-COVID’: a cross-sectional study of persisting symptoms, biomarker and imaging abnormalities following hospitalisation for COVID-19

  • Preliminary Findings of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons

  • Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia

  • Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically III Patients with COVID-19

  • Prospective Mapping of Viral Mutations That Escape Antibodies Used to Treat COVID-19

  • Early High-Titer Plasma Therapy to Prevent Severe COVID-19 in Older Adults

  • Antibody Resistance of SARS-CoV-2 Variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7

  • Interim Results of a Phase 1-2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine

  • Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19

  • Safety and Immunogenicity of an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1/2 Trial

  • REGN-COV2, a Neutralizing Antibody Cocktail, in Outpatients with COVID-19

  • Pre-pandemic Psychiatric Disorders and Risk of COVID-19: A UK Biobank Cohort Analysis

  • Baricitinib Therapy in COVID-19: A Pilot Study on Safety and Clinical Impact

  • SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody LY-CoV555 in Outpatients with COVID-19

  • Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates

  • Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Time to Clinical Improvement in Patients With Severe and Life-threatening COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial

  • Therapeutic Versus Prophylactic Anticoagulation for Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Phase II Clinical Trial (HESACOVID)

  • Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults

  • Phase 1-2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine

  • Effects of COVID-19 on the Nervous System

  • COVID-19 Vaccine: A Comprehensive Status Report

  • Extrapulmonary Manifestations of COVID-19

  • Physical Distancing, Face Masks, and Eye Protection to Prevent Person-to-Person Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19-Preliminary Report

  • Safety and Immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-19: A Preliminary Report of a Phase 1/2, Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

  • An mRNA vaccine Aganist SARS-CoV-2 – Preliminary Report

  • Triple Combination of Interferon Beta-1b, Lopinavir-Ritonavir, and Ribavirin in the Treatment of Patients Admitted to Hospital With COVID-19: An Open-Label, Randomised, Phase 2 Trial

  • Pilot Prospective Open, Single-arm Multicentre Study on Off-label Use of Tocilizumab in Patients With Severe COVID-19

  • Observational Study of Hydroxychlaraquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

  • Clinical and Immunological Assessment of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections

  • Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome: Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS): Cardiac Features, Management and Short-Term Outcomes at a UK Tertiary Paediatric Hospital

  • Biomarkers Associated with COVID-19 Disease Progression

  • Remdesivir for the Treatment of COVID-19 – Preliminary Report

  • A Comparative Study on the Clinical Features of COVID-19 Pneumonia to Other Pneumonias

  • Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes

  • Candidate drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

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Updates in the Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19​

Bebtelovimab Is the Only Monoclonal Antibody That Retains Activity Against Omicron Subvariants

The Omicron subvariants BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 now account for 99% of all COVID-19 cases in the United States. Studies assessing the neutralizing activity of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 have found that only bebtelovimab retains activity against BA.2 and BA.2.12.1. Other monoclonal antibodies, including sotrovimab, bamlanivimab, etesevimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab, are not effective against these new subvariants and are not currently authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat COVID-19 due to the high incidence of Omicron BA.2.

Bebtelovimab is authorized for emergency use by the FDA for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in patients 12 years and older weighing at least 40 kg with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death. Bebtelovimab should be administered as soon as possible after positive SARS-CoV-2 results and within 7 days of symptom onset.

FDA Approves Baricitinib for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Baricitinib, an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, is now FDA-approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized adults requiring supplemental oxygen, noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). It is also authorized for emergency use by the FDA for hospitalized pediatric patients between 2 and 18 years of age who require oxygen support. The approval of baricitinib is based on efficacy and safety data from the ACTT-2 and COV-BARRIER clinical trials. In ACTT-2, baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time, particularly in patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation (10 days vs 18 days; rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% with baricitinib plus remdesivir and 7.8% with remdesivir alone (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). The COV-BARRIER trial found that baricitinib, in addition to standard of care (SoC), was associated with reduced 28-day mortality in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 compared with SoC alone (8% vs 13%; HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.78; P= .0018). The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% with baricitinib plus SoC versus 15% with SoC (P= .005).

References:
Baricitinib fact sheet for healthcare providers. May 2022. (https://www.fda.gov/media/143823/download).  Accessed 5.24.2022.

Baricitinib (Olumiant®) PI 2022 (https://pi.lilly.com/us/olumiant-uspi.pdf). Accessed 5.24.2022.

Bebtelovimab fact sheet for healthcare providers. May 2022. (https://www.fda.gov/media/156152/download).  Accessed 5.24.2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). COVID data tracker. May 23, 2022. (https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#variant-proportions). Accessed 5.24.2022.

Iketani S, et al. Antibody evasion properties of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages. Nature. 2022;604:553-556.

Kalil AC, et al. Baricitinib plus remdesivir for hospitalized adults with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:795-807.

Marconi VC, et al. Efficacy and safety of baricitinib for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19 (COV-BARRIER): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Resp Med. 2021;9:1407-1418.